Equal Protection

In 1902 Exclusion is extended indefinitely. A new detention and processing facility to aid implementation of Exclusion is built on Angel Island in the San Francisco Bay.

New discriminatory laws are adopted in the early twentieth century -- federal Exclusion of all people of Asian descent, state laws that bar people of Asian descent from owning land, and the creation of national origin quota laws that discriminate against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Africa. One 1924 provision removes a woman's U.S. citizenship if she marries a non-citizen. A 1932 act reforms the law only for women not of Chinese descent.

Angel Island
Courtesy National Archives






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